Every part of our body matters. The neck is one of the vital parts of our body. Our neck, which is constantly visible, contains structures that are necessary for us to continue our lives in a healthy way. Problems that will damage any of these structures should be identified in a short time and treatment should be started.
Problems that can be occured in the neck part are not very common problems among people. However, when they occur, they can cause great danger. The structure called thyroglossal duct cyst is also among the conditions that can cause problems in the neck. It is a congenital neck cyst and the most common structure among the cysts in this category.
The structure, which is called the thyroglossal duct, is a structure that is formed when babies are still in the mother’s womb and starts to function immediately. It is the name given to the channel necessary for the development of the fetal thyroid glands in the mother’s womb. This canal starts from the root of the tongue and continues from there to the middle of the neck where the thyroid gland is formed. This resulting canal enables stem cells, which play an important role in the formation of the thyroid gland, to migrate to the region.
The thyroglossal duct, which is responsible for the formation of the thyroid gland, disappears after the formation of the thyroid glands. Cell remnants in the outer part of the canal and covering the canal should also disappear with the formation of the thyroid. However, these cell remnants do not disappear and persist along the canal and cause thyroglossal duct cyst discomfort.
The formation of the thyroid glands must be completely completed for the cyst to appear. The completion of the process and the continuation of the cell residuals that need to be destroyed usually corresponds to the childhood or adolescence period.
People who are in childhood or adolescence, noticing that they have a different shape on their necks, apply to doctors. Thus, an important step is taken for the diagnosis of the thyroglossal duct cyst. Studies have shown that this cyst can also be seen in people over the age of 20. Besides, it is extremely difficult to make a generalization, since the rates of incidence in men and women are very close to each other.
Cyst formation causes some symptoms in the body. All of the symptoms show themselves in the neck part. A small swelling occurs in the midline of the neck in the most of patients. This is most common symptom. Differentiations occur in the symptoms of thyroglossal duct cyst in case of inflammation of the area. Symptoms such as pain, rubor, enlargement of the mass and the starting of flux may also occur in the area where the mass is located. Although it is quite rare, some patients experience difficulty in swallowing and shortness of breath.
While diagnosing the disease, the patient’s history listens and then physical observations are made. The symptoms that are expected to appear in the neck region are examined. If the symptoms point to this cyst, the region is examined with ultrasound and the presence of the cyst is questioned. All the structure and features of the cyst will be examined with ultrasonography. If the patient has a thyroglossal duct cyst, the condition of the cyst and thyroid glands should be thoroughly investigated.
Surgery is the only treatment method that can be applied in case of cyst formation. It is not possible for the cysts to disappear with the use of medication. In short, the extension of the cyst up to the base of the tongue is removed with the technique, which is called the sistrunk. The middle part of the hyoid bone will also be removed during the surgery. Following, the removed parts are sent to the pathology and researches are made on them and it is understood how much the patient is damaged.
It is an operation with an extremely high success rate. Patients can return to their normal lives in a short time.
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